P2

Published

Mortenson WB, Miller W, Miller Polgar J. Measurement Properties of the Late Life Disability Index among individuals who use Power Wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2014 Oct;95(10):1918-24. Doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.05.020.

Rushton PW, Kirby RL, Routhier F, Smith C. Measurement properties of the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire for powered wheelchair users. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, Early Online: 1-7. 2014 Nov 20; 1748-3115. Doi: 10.3109/17483107.2014.984778.

Mortenson WB. Demers L, Rushton PW, Auger C, Routhier F. Exploratory validation of a multidimensional power wheelchair outcomes toolkit. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Nov 22;96(12):2184-93. Doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2015.08.430.

Submitted

Mortenson B, Demers L, Rushton P, Auger C, Routhier F, Miller W. Pyschometric properties of the Caregiver Assistive Technology Outcome Measure for caregivers of power mobility users. Submitted to Clinical Rehab 2015 Oct 30.

Submitted (Presentations)

Labbé D, Rushton PW, Demers L, Kirby L, Mortenson B, Miller WC. Understanding the burden experienced by caregivers of older adults who use power mobility. Submitted to CAG 2016 on 2016 May 2.

Book Chapter

Demers L, Mortenson B, & Fuhrer M. (2012). Measuring the impact of assitive technology on family caregivers.  In: M.Scherer, S.Federici (Eds), Assistive Technology – A Handbook for Professionals in Disability, Rehabilitation and Health Profession, Chapter 5. NY : Taylor & Francis. pp. 83 — 100.

Rushton, P. W., Kirby, R. L., Routhier, F., & Smith, C. (2014). Measurement properties of the wheelchair skills test – questionnaire for powered wheelchair users. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 1-7. doi:10.3109/17483107.2014.984778.

Local Conferences

Smith C, Rushton PW, Kirby RL. The natural history and measurement of power wheelchair use: A progress report. Proceedings Rehabilitation Research Day, Halifax, NS, October 25, 2011.

Rushton PW, Demers L, Routhier F, CanWheel Research Team. Mobility among new and experienced older adult power wheelchair users. Carrefour des connaissances 2002-2012: Célébrez la qualité et la convergence des idées. Montreal, PQ, March 27, 2012.

Rushton PW, Kirby RL, Miller WC. Manual Wheelchair Skills Capacity: Objective Testing versus Subjective Questionnaire. Proceedings of the Dalhousie University Department of Medicine Research Day; 2012 May 17; Halifax, NS.

Routhier F, Rushton PW, Mortenson WB, Demers L, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team. Portrait de la mobilité des ainés qui utilisent un fauteuil roulant motorisé: résultats preliminaries. Journee Ressource de l’Institut de réadaptation en déficience physique de Québec. Quebec City, PQ, June 1, 2012.

Routhier F, Miller WC, Demers L, Rushton PW, Auger C, CanWheel Research Team, and al. CanWheel: Improving wheeled mobility of older adults. Proceedings of Journeé Ressource de l’Institut de réadaptation en déficience physique de Québec; 2012 June 7; Quebec City, PQ.

Provincial Conferences

Rushton, P.W., Demers, L. The natural history and measurement of power wheelchair use, in Proceedings of the REPAR/FRSQ Journée Scientifique, Quebec City, Québec, May 20, 2011, p. 31.

Boyd A, Chew C, Best KL, Rushton PW, Miller WC, and the CanWheel Research Team. Influence of Training on the Power Wheelchair-Handling Skills of Caregivers. Poster presented at the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists National Conference, Victoria, BC, May 29 – June 1, 2013.

National Conferences

Luts, A, Soles, C, Mortenson, WB, Miller, WC. (2011). Longitudinal experiences of power mobility use in older adults. Poster session at the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapy National Conference, June, Saskatoon, SK.

Chamberlain A, Zonneveld S, Mortenson WB, Miller WC, Rushton PW, & Demers L. Older adults’ experiences of power mobility: A longitudinal mixed-methods study. Poster presentation at the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT) National Conference, Quebec, PQ, June 6 – 9, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Introduction: Research has indicated that power mobility can positively impact quality of life for older adults, by increasing participation in meaningful activities (Auger et al., 2008). However, few studies have explored how power mobility users’ engagement in occupation, confidence using their devices, and subjective experiences change over time.

Objectives: 1) To explore older adults’ experiences of using power mobility over time. 2) To examine concomitant changes in frequency of occupational engagement, confidence using a powered wheelchair, and perceived difficulty in taking part in daily activities.

Methods: This ongoing study employs a mixed-method approach in which participants are assessed at enrolment, 3 months, and 1 year. Qualitative interviews are being conducted and standardized measures are being administered at each time point. Assessments include the Late Life Disability Index (measures frequency of participation), the Wheelchair Use Confidence Measure (measures confidence with power wheelchair use), and the Assistive Technology Outcome Profile (measures difficulty performing tasks with and without a wheelchair).

Results: Data from 8 participants currently enrolled in this exploratory study will provide insight into quantitative and qualitative outcomes of power mobility use over time.

Conclusions: By developing a better understanding of the longitudinal impact of power mobility, the study may assist clinicians to improve how these devices are prescribed, focus training on client’s needs, and lobby for change in the way power mobility devices are provided and funded. These changes may facilitate occupational engagement among older adults who use power mobility.


Auger C, Jutai JW, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team. Measurement properties of the ATOP/M for middle-aged and older adults who use power wheelchairs. Presented at the 41st Annual Scientific and Educational Meeting of the Canadian Association on Gerontology (CAG) Conference, Vancouver, BC, October 18 – 20, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

The Assistive Technology Outcome Profile for Mobility (ATOP/M) is a patient-reported outcome measure of the impact of mobility devices on: 1) Activity (e.g. instrumental activities of daily living) and 2) Participation (e.g. social roles). This new tool has not been used to monitor middle-aged and older users of power mobility devices. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the ATOP/M, administered using computer adaptive testing, 1) has good test-retest reliability for power mobility device users, 2) has convergent validity with mobility and participation, and 3) can discriminate perceived difficulty with and without mobility devices. Methods: 51 experienced power wheelchair users aged 50-77 years were assessed at baseline and one month later with the ATOP/M, a mobility measure (Life-space Assessment; LSA) and a participation measure (Late-Life Disability Index; LLDI). The "Activity" and "Participation" domains of the ATOP/M each generate 2 subscale scores assessing perceived difficulty with and without mobility devices with a 5-point likert scale (1=unable to do; 5=without any difficulty). Results: The 4 ATOP/M subscales had substantial to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.78-0.92). Validity testing showed moderate convergence between the LSA and the "Activity" (r=0.31) and "Participation" (r=0.37) subscales. As expected, the LLDI had stronger convergence with "Participation" (r=0.65) than with "Activity" (r=0.53). Finally, perceived difficulty was significantly greater without than with the use of mobility devices. Conclusion: Our results support the reliability and validity of the ATOP/M for middle-aged and older power mobility device users. Future steps will consist of measuring sensitivity to change with a longitudinal cohort.


Demers L, Rushton PW, Mortenson WB, Chan E, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team. Introducing a tool for measuring the impact of power mobility use by older adults on their family caregivers. Presented at the CAG Conference, Vancouver, BC, October 18 – 20, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Introduction: Power wheelchairs may impact on family caregivers by increasing or decreasing assistance demands. However, no tool exists to measure their experience. The Caregiver Assistive Technology Outcome Measure for Power Mobility (CATOM-PM) was created to measure 1) the wheelchair specific and 2) overall sense of burden before and after wheelchair provision.

Objective: To examine the psychometric properties (internal consistency and construct validity) of the CATOM-PM. Methods: Nineteen caregivers of older adult power wheelchair users, providing assistance on a weekly basis, were recruited into the study. They completed the CATOM-PM, the Late Life Function and Disability Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The older persons they helped completed the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q).

Results: The internal consistency of Part 1 (14 wheelchair specific items) and Part 2 (4 overall sense of burden items) was confirmed with Cronbach’s a values of 0.80 and 0.78 respectively. The analyses revealed associations between the burden experienced by caregivers and their degree of disability (Part 1: r = 0.64, p < 0.01; Part 2: r = 0.78, p < 0.01). The overall sense of caregiver burden (Part 2) was associated with the caregivers’ level of anxiety (r = -0.62, p < 0.01) and depression (Part 2: r = -0.75, p < 0.01) as well as with the users’ perception of power wheelchair skills (r = 0.81, p< 0.01).

Conclusions: Preliminary testing indicates that the CATOM-PM is a valid measure for family caregivers of older adults using power wheelchairs.


Kirby RL, Rushton PW, Smith C, CanWheel Research Team. Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire Version 4.1 for Powered Wheelchair Users. Presented at the CAG Conference, Vancouver, BC, October 18 – 20, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Background and Purpose: The Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q) version 4.1 is a subjective evaluation of 32 wheelchair skills, ranging from turning a power wheelchair on and off to moving a power wheelchair up and down a 5cm level change. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the WST-Q version 4.1 for powered wheelchair users.

Methods: A one-month test-retest design was conducted with 42 adults who were experienced power wheelchair users in six Canadian cities.

Results: The mean age of the sample was 60.3±7.5 years, 57% were male, and the most common diagnosis was spinal cord injury (33%). Participants had spent an average of 15.6±11.1 years using a wheelchair, 83% had never received power wheelchair skills training and 50% drove rear-wheel-drive wheelchairs. The mean total percentage capacity scores ± standard deviation of the WST-Q at baseline and retest were 81.9% ±10.8 and 84.0%±10.2 respectively. The mean ± standard deviation time required to administer the WST-Q via a semi-structured interview was 18.3±6.7 minutes. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.81 with a 0.67-0.89 confidence interval. There were positive, moderate correlations between the WST-Q and wheelchair confidence (r=0.44, p=0.016), life space travelled (r=0.39, p=0.01), and objective testing of wheelchair skills (r=0.69, p=0.00).

Conclusion: This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the WST-Q for powered wheelchair users.


Rushton PW, Demers L, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team. Measurement properties of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon-P). Presented at the CAG Conference, Vancouver, BC, October 18 – 20, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Background: The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for power wheelchair users (WheelCon-P) is an outcome measure designed to assess confidence with power wheelchair use. Developed using focus groups and a Think Aloud process, the WheelCon-P is a modified version of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for manual wheelchair users (WheelCon-M).

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, concurrent, and construct validity of the WheelCon-P. Methods: Participants completed the WheelCon-P twice, one month apart. Forty-seven adults from six Canadian cities who used a power wheelchair for mobility completed the study.

Results: The mean age of this sample was 59.6±7.1 years and 55% were males. Thirty-two percent of the sample had a spinal cord injury. These individuals spent an average of 12.2±10.7 years using a wheelchair and scored a mean of 80.7 ±15.4 on the WheelCon-P. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha were ICC1,1=0.89 (0.82-0.94 CI) and 0.96 respectively. There was a positive, moderate correlation between the WheelCon-P and the Wheelchair Skills Test (r = 0.44, p<0.01) and a negative, moderate correlation between the WheelCon-P and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety score (r = -0.47, p<0.01). A significant difference between men and women was found (independent t-test, p<0.05).

Conclusion: The WheelCon-P has strong retest reliability, high internal consistency, and support for concurrent and construct validity. This tool holds promise for clinicians and researchers to investigate the influence of confidence with power wheelchair use on participation in daily life activities.


Ruston PW, Mortenson B, Demers L, Auger C, Busilachi E, and CanWheel Team. Mixed effects of older adults’ use of power wheelchairs on their informal caregivers. Centre de readaptation Lucie-Bruneau (CRLB) Crossroads of Knowledge 2013, Montreal, QC, April 9, 2013. (Poster)

Routhier F, Demers L, Kirby RL, Auger C, Rushton P, & CanWheel Research Team. Efficacite, securite et impact d’un programme d’entrainment des habilites en fauteuil roulant motorise: un essai controle randomise. Presented at the Colloque ReadaptATion-aides techniques conference, Laval, Quebec, May 8-9, 2014.

Auger C. Rushton P, Miller WC, Demers L, Routhier F & CanWheel Research Team. Profil de mobilite des aines qui utilisent un fauteuil roulant motorise dans la communaute. Presented at the Colloque ReadaptATion-aides techniques conference, Laval, Quebec, May 8-9 2014.

Mortenson WB, Demers L, Rushton PW, Auger C, Routhier F, Miller WC. Exploratory validation of a multidimensional power mobility outcomes toolkit. Accepted as a podium presentation at the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapy National Conference; 2015 May; Winnipeg, MB.

Rushton PW, Kirby RL, Demers L, Auger C. The CanWheel Power Wheelchair Outcomes Toolkit: Overview and Application. Proceedings of the International Seating Symposium (ISS); 2016 March 1-4; Vancouver, BC.

International Conferences

Mortenson, WB, Demers, L, Landry, A-P, Luts, A, Soles, C. (2011). Experiences of power mobility use in older adults over time: Preliminary findings. European Seating Symposium. November, Dublin, Ireland.

Rushton PW, Demers L, Mortenson, WB. The impact of older adults’ use of power wheelchairs on their informal caregivers. Poster presentation at the International Federation on Aging 11th Global Conference on Aging: Ageing Connects. Prague, Czech Republic, May 28 – June 1, 2012

Rushton PW, Kirby RL, CanWheel Research Team. Wheelchair Skills Test Version 4.1 for power wheelchairs: Comparison of total percentage scores for the objective and questionnaire versions. Poster presentation at the Annual RESNA Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, June 30 – July 2, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the total percentage scores of the objective Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) and subjective Wheelchair Skills Test – Questionnaire (WST-Q) for power wheelchair use, version 4.1 are highly correlated, but that the WST-Q scores are slightly higher. Fifty power wheelchair users completed the WST-Q followed by the WST. The WST and WST-Q were moderately correlated (r = 0.62) (p<.000), but the WST-Q scores were higher by an average of 3.8% (p<0.004). The results of this study provide support for the use of either the WST or WST-Q depending upon the circumstances and objective of the assessment.


Rushton PW, Kirby RL, CanWheel Research Team. Reliability of the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire, Version 4.1 for Powered Wheelchair Users. Poster presentation at the Annual RESNA Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, June 30-July 2, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Introduction: The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for power wheelchair users (WheelCon-P) is a new outcome measure designed to assess confidence with power wheelchair use. It was developed base on a modification of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for manual wheelchair users (WheelCon-M) using focus groups and a Think Aloud process.

Objective: The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the WheelCon-P.

Methods: A one month test-retest design is being conducted. To date, 23 adult, community dwelling individuals who use a power wheelchair as their primary means of mobility have completed the study.

Results: The mean age of this sample was 59.9±6.7 years and 52% were males. Thirty-four percent of the sample had a spinal cord injury. These individuals spent an average of 9.4±13.2 years using a wheelchair and scored a mean of 83.3±14.7 on the WheelCon P. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha were 0.96 (0.91-0.98 CI) and 0.98 respectively. There was a positive, moderate correlation between the WheelCon-P and the Life Space Assessment (r = 0.54, -<0.01) and a significant difference between men and women was found (independent t-test, p<0.05).

Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate that the WheelCon-P is a reliable, valid tool that can be used to measure confidence with power wheelchair use.

Rushton PW, Auger C, Mortenson WB, Demers L, Miller WC. Occupational engagement among power wheelchair users. Podium presentation at the CAOT National Conference, Quebec, PQ, June 6 – 9, 2012.

Rushton PW, Kirby RL, CanWheel Research Team. Reliability of the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire, version 4.1 for Powered Wheelchair Users. Poster presentation at the Annual RESNA Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, June 30 – July 2, 2012.

Rushton PW, Demers L. Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale (WheelCon-P). Podium presentation at the CAOT National Conference, Quebec, PQ, June 6 – 9, 2012. Presented at the CAG Conference, Vancouver, BC, October 18 – 20, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Introduction: The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for power wheelchair users (WheelCon-P) is a new outcome measure designed to assess confidence with power wheelchair use. It was developed base on a modification of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for manual wheelchair users (WheelCon-M) using focus groups and a Think Aloud process.

Objective: The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the WheelCon-P.

Methods: A one month test-retest design is being conducted. To date, 23 adult, community dwelling individuals who use a power wheelchair as their primary means of mobility have completed the study.

Results: The mean age of this sample was 59.9±6.7 years and 52% were males. Thirty-four percent of the sample had a spinal cord injury. These individuals spent an average of 9.4±13.2 years using a wheelchair and scored a mean of 83.3±14.7 on the WheelCon P. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha were 0.96 (0.91-0.98 CI) and 0.98 respectively. There was a positive, moderate correlation between the WheelCon-P and the Life Space Assessment (r = 0.54, -<0.01) and a significant difference between men and women was found (independent t-test, p<0.05).

Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate that the WheelCon-P is a reliable, valid tool that can be used to measure confidence with power wheelchair use.


Rushton PW, Demers L, Miller MC, CanWheel Research Team. Changes that occur among new and experienced older adult power wheelchair users over six months.* Symposia presented at the CAG Conference, Vancouver, BC, October 18 – 20, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Introduction: The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for power wheelchair users (WheelCon-P) is a new outcome measure designed to assess confidence with power wheelchair use. It was developed base on a modification of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for manual wheelchair users (WheelCon-M) using focus groups and a Think Aloud process.

Objective: The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the WheelCon-P.

Methods: A one month test-retest design is being conducted. To date, 23 adult, community dwelling individuals who use a power wheelchair as their primary means of mobility have completed the study.

Results: The mean age of this sample was 59.9±6.7 years and 52% were males. Thirty-four percent of the sample had a spinal cord injury. These individuals spent an average of 9.4±13.2 years using a wheelchair and scored a mean of 83.3±14.7 on the WheelCon P. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha were 0.96 (0.91-0.98 CI) and 0.98 respectively. There was a positive, moderate correlation between the WheelCon-P and the Life Space Assessment (r = 0.54, -<0.01) and a significant difference between men and women was found (independent t-test, p<0.05).

Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate that the WheelCon-P is a reliable, valid tool that can be used to measure confidence with power wheelchair use.



Rushton PW, Demers, L, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team. The Natural History and Measurement of Power Mobility Outcomes Among New and Experienced Older Adult Power Wheelchair Users: A One-Year Longitudinal Study. Association for the Advancement of Assistive Technology in Europe, Vilamoura, Portugal, September 19 – 22, 2013. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the test- retest reliability of the total capacity scores from the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q) version 4.1 for powered wheelchair users. We used a one-month test- retest interval. Thirty-eight power users completed a baseline and follow-up WST-Q. Results show that the WST-Q has excellent test-retest reliability (ICC of 0.82). This study provides support for the reliability of the WST-Q for powered wheelchair users.

Kirby RL, Smith C, Ruston PW, Auger C, Demers L. Overview of a Power Wheelchair Outcomes Tool Kit. Workshop at the Annual RESNA Conference, Seattle, WA, June 20 – 24, 2013.

Auger C, Jutal J, Miller WC. Assistive Technology Outcome Profile for Mobility: Introduction, Administration, Scoring, and Score Interpretation. Proceedings of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America; 2013 June; Seattle, Washington.

Demers L, Rushton PW, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team, Mortenson WB, Jutai JW, et al. Improving mobility of older adults and mitigating caregiver burden through assistive technology. Invited scientific conference at the Research Initiative for Activity Studies and Occupational Therapy, Department of Public Heath, Synddansk Universitet (University of Southern Denmark); 2015 Feb 3; Odense, Denmark.

Miller WC, Rushton PW, Kirby RL, Demers L, Auger C. The CanWheel power wheelchair outcomes toolkit: overview and application. Proceedings of the International Seating Symposium; 2016 March 2-4; Vancouver, BC.

Miller WC, Mortenson B, Rushton P, Viswanathan P, Routhier F, Kirby RL. CanWheel: Improving Power Wheeled Mobility for Older Canadians. Instructional Session presented at the 32nd International Seating Symposium. Vancouver, B.C., 2016 March 1-4.

 

Symposia

(*abstracts published)

CAOT 2012 (June)*


Mortenson WB, Rushton PW, Demers L, Miller WC. “There’s lots of compromises”: Experiences of Canadian power mobility users over time.* Podium presentation at the CAOT National Conference, Quebec, PQ, June 6 – 9, 2012. Click the abstract to read more…

Abstract

Introduction: Power wheelchairs may represent a mixed blessing for those who use them. On the one hand, power mobility use has been associated with improved occupational engagement and quality of life, but on the other hand, problems with access to the devices, environmental accessibility, cost, and stigmatization have also been identified. Furthermore, the longitudinal impact of these devices has not been studied.

Objectives: To explore older adult, power wheelchair users’ experiences over time.
Methods: In this ongoing study, a series of three semi-structured qualitative interviews have been conducted with 16 participants (age >50 years). Participants were interviewed at baseline, 3 months and 1 year.

Results: “Obtaining and adopting power mobility” described how participants acquired, learned to use and integrated powered mobility into their sense of self. “Never completed adapted” revealed the environment barriers users encountered that caused the wheelchair to emerge into consciousness. “You don’t know what’s coming” illustrated the ongoing concerns participants experienced with wheelchair use and aging with a disability.

Conclusions: The findings reveal how older adults learn to use these devices and internalize wheelchair use into their identities. The findings suggest that prescribers need to provide training that 1) is sensitive to user’s ongoing process of adaptation and 2) attempts to reduece the challenge and barriers they encounter. Having a better understanding of the ongoing challenges of power mobility acceptance and use over time will help clinicians to reduce the likelihood of device abandonment and to enhance user’s participation in meaningful occupations.


Rushton PW, Auger C, Mortenson WB, Demers L, Miller WC. Occupational engagement among power wheelchair users. Podium presentation at the CAOT National Conference; 2012 June 6 – 9; Quebec, PQ.

Rushton PW, Demers L. Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale (WheelCon-P). Podium presentation at the CAOT National Conference; 2012 June 6 – 9; Quebec, PQ.

 


CAG 2012 (October)*
Mortenson WB, Demers L, Rushton PW, Miller WC. Understanding and Improving Power Mobility Use Among Older Canadians. Symposia presented at: the CAG Conference; 2012 October 18 – 20; Vancouver, BC.s

Rushton PW, Demers L, Miller WC, CanWheel Research Team. Changes that occur among new and experienced older adult power wheelchair users over six months. Symposia presented at: the CAG Conference; 2012 October 18 – 20; Vancouver, BC.

RESNA 2013 (June)
Kirby RL, Smith C, Rushton PW, Auger C, Demers L. Overview of a Power Wheelchair Outcomes Tool Kit. Workshop at the Annual Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Conference; 2013 June 20 – 24; Seattle, WA.

RESNA 2014 (June)
Kirby L, Smith C, Demers L, Auger C, Rushton P, Miller WC. Application of a Power Wheelchair Outcomes Tool Kit. Workshop at the Annual Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Conference; 2014 June 11-15; Indianapolis, Indiana.

Improving wheeled mobility of older adults.